What is DRM? Structure and Operation of DRM

What is DRM? Structure and Operation of DRM

Copyright is always an important issue that any individual or business is interested in when exchanging or purchasing. Especially when the digital revolution gives users the right to use content in their own way, the control over copyright ownership or the author’s intellectual property is gradually becoming severely distributed.

DRM is the most effective solution that can prevent these problems. Read the article below to help you better understand what DRM is as well as useful information related to this digital content rights management technology.

What is DRM?

DRM (Digital rights management) or digital content rights management is a series of technologies capable of controlling all access to copyrighted material based on encryption to limit actions with signs of copyright infringement on digital content rights. To put it more simply, DRM was born with the purpose of controlling user actions in accessing and using digital content.

  • In essence, DRM is an alternative to the inherently inefficient and passive copyright control of digital content owners and uses computer programs to exercise complete control. content set.
  • By using DRM, copyright owners can easily control how product buyers (users) use their own products.

A DRM system is considered ideal when it ensures transparency, flexibility for users, and the ability to create complex barriers to prevent unauthorized users from using copyright.

DRM was born with the purpose of controlling user actions in accessing

DRM’s Structure

DRM provides users with a standard means of describing, classifying, and sharing data. These are all reflected in the structure of the DRM as follows:

  • Data Description: This will provide a means for you to conduct a uniform description of data so that data discovery and sharing are supported.
  • Data context: Through an approach to classifying data by taxon, this department will facilitate users in data exploration.
  • Data sharing: Supports access rights (including special requests) and data exchange (including fixed and recurrent transactions between parties), data sharing is enabled by both standardization areas for data description and data context.

A DRM program will operate on three levels including:

  • Build a copyright for a piece of content.
  • Manage the distribution of copyrighted content.
  • Control all consumer behavior and activities for distributed copyrighted content.

To achieve all these three levels of control, a DRM digital content rights management program needs to identify and describe three entities including users, content, usage rights, and relationships. relationship between these three entities in the most efficient way.

DRM uses a standard means of describing, classifying, and sharing data

DRM’s Operation

DRM will basically work by encrypting the file content through a secret key. Users who need to use a file or separate applications to read that file will need to decrypt the file to be able to use it. Specifically, DRM will work according to the following process:

– Encoding (red):

  • The user will proceed to pack the file and send a request to the DRM system to receive the key.
  • Next, using ekey, the user can proceed to encrypt the file.
  • Encrypted will be shared when users have a need to use it.
  • In many cases, the Encrypted key is generated by the person who packaged the file and then the key is stored on the DRM.

– Decoding (blue):

  • Users will use specialized applications to open files and download encrypted content as soon as they need to use it.
  • After having the Encrypted key, the application will continue to request to receive from the DRM Decryption key system.
  • As soon as the authentication information is accepted by DRM, this system will send back the dKey so that the application can decrypt the file quickly and meet the user’s needs.
CDN and popular types of CDN services

CDN and popular types of CDN services

1. What is CDN Service?

CDN (Content Delivery Network) also known as a high-performance content delivery network built for high-traffic systems, set up with multiple server clusters located in data centers with different geographical locations together, have a common task of distributing content, transmitting images, CSS, Javascript, Video Clip, Media Streaming, and File Download to end users as quickly as possible.
The CDN’s working mechanism helps users quickly access the server data closest to their location instead of having to access to get the original data in a farther area, which is an effective solution to reduce the load and limit the impact on the main server system’s performance.

2. Popular CDN services in the world

CDN AWS – CloudFront

Amazon CloudFront is the world’s most popular content delivery network (CDN) that makes it easy to securely deliver Web sites, Videos, apps, and APIs with high speed and low latency. Built for developers, CloudFront makes it easy for businesses to customize their delivery to find the right balance of speed, security, and cost for their needs. All in all, the AWS CDN provides a good service. Although the basic CDN configuration can be very easy to deploy for most administrators, the more advanced CDN configuration is quite difficult to manage, requires quite a lot of time, and the features are not. too strong.

Advantages of AWS CDN:

  • Fast service team
  • Easy setup for basic plans
  • Fast-loading CDN speed
  • An easy change in CDN server location selection
  • Enables extensive server and resource settings with highly configurable packages
  • Reasonable management
  • Fast and reliable
  • CDN network is distributed in many regions around the globe

Disadvantages of AWS CDN:

  • Built primarily for IT/server admins
  • The cost of using CloudFront’s CDN is not the best choice
  • Expenses and payments are not clearly separated
  • The CDN customization and configuration interface needs to be designed to be more user-friendly for the administrator
  • Need more instructions on how to use the features

The above pros and cons are objectively summed up by us through quality assessments at Gartner and TrustRad. Thereby, we can see that users are quite satisfied with the outstanding advantages of AWS CDN.

However, besides that, AWS CDN still has some disadvantages that have not met the needs of users. In it, most of the reviews are not satisfied with the price and the management interface can cause some difficulties. Therefore, before you choose an AWS CDN, consider and consider a few other options.

Smart CDN

Akamai is a provider of CDN (Content Delivery Network) and Security services suitable for large enterprises. Akamai was established in 1998 at MIT Technology Park – USA, currently transmitting 30% of worldwide data traffic with network systems in most regions of the world.

Advantages of CDN Akamai

  • Powerful CDN technology can handle the needs of transmitting a variety of content (images, videos, live streaming…)
  • Very good customer service
  • Akamai is strong in the content delivery process with its method of mirroring the CSS and HTML elements of the Web page
  • Akamai’s CDN platform provides a network of cloud-connected servers in over 100 countries

Disadvantages of CDN Akamai

  • Higher cost compared to other CDN providers in the region
  • The CDN management interface is quite complicated
  • No intuitive user interface for configuration and setup instructions yet
  • Quite expensive for small businesses and organizations
  • Takes a long time to activate CDN (due to testing with many scenarios)

The above advantages and disadvantages of CDN Akamai are compiled by us through quality assessments at Gartner and TrustRadius. Similar to AWS CDN, Akamai CDN also has distinct advantages. However, the downside is still the high cost and the not-so-intuitive management interface.

CDN Cloudflare

Cloudflare offers CDN with more functionality than other CDN services. Cloudflare’s CDN helps fight DDoS attacks and stores static content on your website, making it faster to load and effectively reducing the load on your web server.

Advantages of Cloudflare CDN

  • Cloudflare’s free early-stage CDN and SSL are great perks for new sites
  • Cloudflare’s cost structure is suitable for many applications
  • Help your Website speed up quite effectively
  • Static data such as images, CSS, files, etc. are also gzip compressed by Cloudflare, so the download speed is faster.

Disadvantages of Cloudflare CDN

  • The way it works is not very user-friendly
  • The user interface is quite complicated
  • Instructions for using functions are still difficult to understand
  • If your Website is located on hosting with a server located in Vietnam, and the visitors are mainly from Vietnam, the use of Cloudflare slows down the page load speed because of the quality of the international and Vietnamese transmission lines. The reason is that this time the query will go around from Vietnam to CloudFlare DNS Server and then return the results to Vietnam.
  • Website uptime time depends on Cloudflare Server uptime.

The advantages and disadvantages of CDN Cloudflare are compiled by us through quality assessments at Gartner and TrustRadius. Cloudflare would be a good fit if you need an affordable CDN solution for a new website. But it may not be appropriate when your website is actually under targeted attack. At this time, to protect the safety of the website, the business may have to pay a large cost.

What is SSAI and how does it work?

What is SSAI and how does it work?

What is Server-Side Ad Insertion (SSAI)?

SSAI (Server-side ad insertion) is a combination of manifest manipulation, ad server communication, and ad bitrate and resolution normalization, all of which happen on the server side before presenting a manifest to clients. Server-side ad insertion may also be referred to as dynamic ad insertion, or ad stitching.

By whatever name it is known, server-side ad insertion is difficult to get right for numerous reasons:

  • Server-side ad insertion requires a highly scalable origination service
  • Personalized manifests are not cacheable
  • Reporting and custom player behavior require clients to know an ad has been played
  • Different ad standards (VAST, MAP), ad servers, origin servers, and player environments complicate server-side ad insertion workflows

To cope with fluctuations in demand for just-in-time server-side ad insertion, a highly scalable architecture is required – particularly for broadcasters that must deal with the sharp peaks in demand that breaking news, sports events, and popular TV series bring. Cloud-based video processing with a server-side ad insertion integration is one-way broadcasters can scale to meet audience demand.

When events are underway, the number of concurrent viewers can vary greatly and unpredictably. For example, viewership for a closely played game may remain steady for much of the contest, then surge by hundreds of thousands of new viewers during the last few minutes.

The key to managing viewer variances is in encoding and packaging that can be virtualized for rapid deployment and hosted in a cloud infrastructure for quick auto-scaling.

Because dedicated single-path hardware encoders and packagers lack flexibility, the practical solution is to spin up instances of cloud-based video processing as they are needed. The cloud is uniquely well-suited to creating millions of individually tailored manifests of content and advertising for live-streamed events.

Technology Behind SSAI

Dynamic ad insertion technology is a combination of several elements:

  • Manifest manipulator — responsible for creating a streaming playlist, which is a continuous combination of content and advertisements
  • Content delivery network (CDN) — a system of server nodes that automatically determines the optimal source to stream ads to the viewer
  • Ad decision server (ADS) —  it chooses what ads to stitch into the video content based on the user’s location and other factors.

How Does Server-Side Dynamic Ad Insertion Work?

So, you decide to watch a movie, a TV show, or a news broadcast. Here’s what happens after you click “play”:

  • The video player sends a request to the SSAI vendor with user-specified data (geolocation, internet service provider, search engine queries, current trends, and other info).
  • The ad decision server creates a manifest that instructs the player. The manifest includes the advertisements for streaming, their duration, and beacons (markers that activate ads).
  • The content delivery network (CDN) sends the content with a specific manifest to the video player. The ads are sent to the CDN in multiple quality versions to adapt to the viewer’s internet connection.
  • The player automatically sends requests to the ADS when playback hits beacons, and the CDN server forwards the ads into the stream.
  • ADS creates reports about user behavior. It can include what part of the ad was seen and if the viewer interacted with it.

Server-Side Ad Insertion in Streaming Video

For broadcasters and video content providers, an inherent tension exists between the need to deliver a premium viewing experience – complete with start-over and time-shifted TV functionality – and to monetize streaming video offerings and services. The challenge of monetizing over-the-top (OTT) video content will only continue to grow as viewership on connected devices increases.

To optimize streaming video revenue opportunities, advertisers are increasingly seeking ways to match the interests of individual consumers with ads and deliver them in a non-disruptive way.

Ad personalization reduces the consumer desire to employ ad blockers and creates a mutually beneficial streaming experience for video providers and audiences. Beyond the relevance of topical interests, ad personalization can also connect with individual viewers in ways that are emotionally relevant to them, sparking changes in thinking as well as in purchasing.

While the opportunities to capitalize on ad personalization and ad insertion grow, the question for broadcasters, pay TV operators, content programmers, and all video providers is, what is the best way to meet the needs of the video business and the viewing audience?

The solution needs to balance monetization requirements with the ability to provide a high-quality viewing experience for subscribers – a balance that server-side ad insertion can consistently maintain.

CDN and popular types of CDN services

When should we use CDN? Some notices if choosing CDN

1. When should we use CDN?

Not every website needs to use a CDN. However, if you know how to apply CDN to your website, that process will be highly effective. CDNs are really useful when:

  • The website’s server is located far away from the user.
  • Large hits consume a lot of bandwidth.
  • There are many visitors from many different countries.
  • Use the Load Balancing FailOver technique.

2. What to keep in mind when choosing CDN service?

What to keep in mind when choosing CDN service

Most customers when choosing CDN service pay attention to the PoP system. Ideally, you should choose CPN services that support PoP in the countries with the most users.

The second thing you need to pay attention to is the price and payment method. Because you will probably have to work with international suppliers. Therefore, the issue of payment and price is somewhat complicated. In addition, the form of payment is also one of the issues that are worthy of attention. You can choose to pay as much as you want or pay monthly, yearly, or quarterly depending on your ability.

3. Some common questions when using CDN that customers need to consult?

What content can a CDN deliver over the Internet?

Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) can deliver two types of content: static and dynamic content.

– Static content

Static content is website data that doesn’t change for one user or another. All users see the same image, logo, and font style of the website header, and the business doesn’t change these often. Static data is data that doesn’t need to be created, processed, or modified, and it’s also the right type of data to store on a CDN.

– Dynamic content

Dynamic content, such as social media news feeds, weather reports, login statuses, and chat messages, is content that varies among website users. This data will change based on the user’s location, login time, or user preferences, and the site must generate data for everyone and all user interactions.

Which website should use CDN?

Almost all websites today should use CDN except for websites with the purpose of introducing businesses normally. For websites that operate for user access, you are encouraged to use CDN.

How does CDN help speed up a website?

CDN helps speed up the website by speeding up the rendering of CSS, Javascript, images, and videos fastest.

Is CDN safe or not?

If you choose reputable CDN services, it is 100% safe.

What is the difference between a VPN and a CDN?

VPN helps to hide the identity of the end-user. A VPN uses another computer as an access point to the website’s server. This gives users access to content that is blocked at their location. This content will not be blocked at the VPN server.

Is CDN the same as hosting?

Many customers often confuse these two concepts. Hosting is considered a warehouse for all goods to serve customer needs. And CDN acts like a transit station to bring goods to users more quickly.

Does CDN work with mobile devices?

They are compatible with any device.

Are CDNs the same?

Depending on the provider, each CDN will have different forms.

Here is the knowledge you need to know about CDN. Hopefully, through this article, you have grasped useful information to choose the right CDN for your website.

What is CDN? What are the benefits of using CDN?

What is CDN? What are the benefits of using CDN?

  1. What is CDN?

The Content Delivery Network (CDN) is a network of servers that store copies of static content within a website and distribute it to multiple PoP servers. The network of CDN servers is located all over the globe. From PoP (Points of Presence), data will continue to be sent to the end user. Through CDN, a copy of the content on the nearest server is returned to the user when they visit the website.

  1. How does CDN work?

A content delivery network (CDN) works by establishing a point of presence (POP) or a group of CDN edge servers in multiple geographic locations. This geographically distributed network works on the principles of caching, dynamic acceleration, and edge logic computation.


Caching is the process of storing multiple copies of the same data for faster data access. In computing operations, the principle of caching applies to all types of memory and storage management. In CDN technology, this term refers to the process of storing the static content of a website on many servers in the network. Caching Operations in CDN work as follows:

  • A geo-located remote site visitor will make the first request for static web content from the site.
  • That request will go to the web application server or origin server. The origin server sends a response to that remote visitor. At the same time, the origin server also sends a copy of the response to the CDN’s POP in the closest geographical location to that visitor.
  • The CDN’s POP server will store the copy as a cached file.
  • Next time, when this or any other visitor in that location makes the same request, the cache server, not the origin server, will send the response.

Dynamic acceleration

Dynamic acceleration is the process of reducing server response times to requests for dynamic web content by having a CDN server intermediate between web applications and clients. Caching won’t be easy with dynamic web content because the content can change with every user’s request. CDN servers must reconnect to the origin server when there are any dynamic requests, however, they help speed up the process by optimizing the connection between these servers and the origin server.

If the client sends a dynamic request directly to the web server over the Internet, the request may be lost or delayed due to network latency. Opening and closing connections for security verification purposes can also be time-consuming. On the other hand, if a nearby CDN server forwards requests to the origin servers, they have established a reliable, persistent connection. For example, the following features can further optimize the connection between them:

  •  Intelligent Routing Algorithms
  • Neighborhood by geographical location with the origin server
  • The ability of the client to process the request, which reduces the size of the request

Calculating boundary logic

You can program the CDN edge server to perform logical calculations that simplify client-server communication. For example, this server can perform the following tasks:

  • Examine user requests and modify caching behavior.
  • Validate and handle incorrect user requests.
  • Modify or optimize content before responding.

Distributing application logic between web servers and the edge helps developers offload the origin server’s compute requirements and improve site performance.

  1. What is the use of CDN?

Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) help improve the normal functionality of the website while increasing customer satisfaction. Here are some typical use cases.

CDN response time is fast

CDN ensures website loading speed, online transactions are always smooth and stable. Users will appreciate sites with fast response times. This can also significantly increase the revenue the website brings in.

Toward the global market

If your website server is in only one country and you do not use a CDN, it will be difficult for you to reach other countries. The reason is that remote customers cannot access the website easily and quickly due to distance problems.

Global CDN service will help you serve more customers around the world because the access speed of the clients will be improved by servers distributed locally in the country where they live.

Helping businesses save costs

Instead of investing in infrastructure to have servers in multiple locations, a CDN service can help businesses and businesses save on large bills. CDN provides a platform. A single service can handle all operations separately. It’s also possible works well in many regions of the world for a very reasonable price.

Ensure users can access all times

CDN companies have servers everywhere. If a server has a problem that needs to be fixed. The user will be redirected to another server nearby. This will secure your website will always be visited by users. And greatly enhance the reputation and brand of the website.

Reduce server load and increase users when using CDN

The user will not refer to the website’s server directly. Which will be transmitted through servers located around the world. All of these servers contain the same website resource information. So the user experience is completely unaffected.

Due to such a reduction in load, more people can be active on your site at the same time. Because then the bandwidth is divided equally among the server areas closest to each user.

CDN Limits DDoS Attacks

DDoS attacks can cause enormous financial losses. And seriously damage the image of the company. A CDN can help you prevent such attacks.

Since CDNs are built with a distributed architecture, the infrastructure is also protected. The core is also protected by the firewall behind the CDN. Therefore, the possibility of a DDoS attack is also greatly reduced.